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TargetMol | Tags Immunology/Inflammation
TargetMol | Tags Metabolism
TargetMol | Tags NF-Κb

Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. Cellular ROS are generated endogenously during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion. ROS also activates MAPK pathways by the direct inhibition of MAPK phosphatases. Through PTEN, the PI3K pathway is subject to reversible redox regulation by ROS generated by growth factor stimulation. The activation of autophagy may be a cellular defense mechanism in response to ROS.

  • Imeglimin hydrochloride
    T7486775351-61-6
    Imeglimin hydrochloride (EMD 387008 hydrochloride) prevents human endothelial cell death by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition without inhibiting mitochondrial respiration.
    • $34
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  • N-acetylcysteine amide
    T551838520-57-9
    N-Acetylcysteine amide is a thiol antioxidant and neuroprotective agent that can permeate cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier.
    • $39
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  • Urolithin A
    T71741143-70-0
    Urolithin A is a secondary metabolite of ellagic acid, a polyphenolic antioxidant, that has antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant properties.
    • $42
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  • Elesclomol
    T6170488832-69-5
    Elesclomol (STA-4783) is an oxidative stress inducer and a highly lipophilic copper ion carrier. Elesclomol induces apoptosis in tumor cells and is used in copper death related studies. Elesclomol also inhibits FDX1-mediated Fe-S cluster biosynthesis.
    • $34
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  • Echinacoside
    T171682854-37-3
    Echinacoside is a natural polyphenolic compound with various kinds of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nitric oxide radical-scavenging and vasodilative ones.
    • $70
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  • Coenzyme Q10
    T2796303-98-0
    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring compound, acting as the electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
    • $42
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  • Squalene
    T4749111-02-4
    Squalene (AddaVax) is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though there are botanical sources as well, including rice bran, wheat germ, and olives. All higher organisms produce squalene, including humans. Squalene is an intermediate product in the synthesis of cholesterol and shows several pharmacological properties such as hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, and antitoxicant activity.
    • $30
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  • Picroside II
    T281739012-20-9
    Picroside II (Vanilloyl catalpol) is the main active ingredient in iridoid glycosides. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory, anti-virus and other pharmacological activities.
    • $30
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  • Riboflavin Tetrabutyrate
    T16747752-56-7
    Riboflavin Tetrabutyrate is a lipophilic flavin derivative. Riboflavin Tetrabutyrate has antioxidative and lipid peroxide-removing activity.
    • $33
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  • 2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine
    T746156-06-4
    2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) (DAHP) is a selective, specific inhibitor of GTP cyclohydrolase I, the rate limiting step for de novo pterin synthesis
    • $41
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  • Naringenin
    T2838480-41-1
    Naringenin (NSC-11855) is a flavanone that is considered to have a bioactive effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, antiinflammatory, carbohydrate metabolism promoter, immunity system modulater. This substance has also been shown to repair DNA.
    • $50
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  • Glucosamine
    T04293416-24-8
    Glucosamine (Chitosamine) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Supplemental glucosamine may help to rebuild cartilage and treat arthritis.
    • $50
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  • Protocatechualdehyde
    T3018139-85-5
    Protocatechualdehyde (3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde), a natural polyphenol compound derived from radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae roots, exhibits diverse biological activities and finds extensive medicinal applications as an antioxidant, anti-aging, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory agent.
    • $30
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  • L-Ascorbic acid 2-phosphate trisodium
    T218566170-10-3
    L-Ascorbic acid 2-phosphate trisodium (Sodium ascorbyl phosphate) is used in biocatalytic dephosphorylation for electric power generation and electrochemical detection assays.
    • $42
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  • Asiaticoside
    T302516830-15-2
    Asiaticoside (Emdecassol) (Madecassol) is the active chemical component of the plant Centella asiatica. Asiaticoside is used to study potential treatments for wounds and burns.
    • $50
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  • Levomefolic Acid
    T709431690-09-2
    Levomefolic Acid (5-MTHF) is a natural, active form of folic acid used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homocysteine among other functions. Levomefolinic acid is used as a treatment and to prevent Folate Deficiency
    • $50
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  • α-Vitamin E
    T164859-02-9
    α-Vitamin E (Dexrabeprazole Sodium) is a naturally-occurring form of vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin with potent antioxidant properties.
    • $38
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  • Sodium dichloroacetate
    T36042156-56-1
    Sodium dichloroacetate (BCA) , a specific inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) with IC50 values of 183 and 80 μM for PDK2 and PDK4 respectively, has been shown to derepress a mitochondrial potassium-ion channel axis, trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibit tumor growth.
    • $31
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  • Berberine
    T4S07972086-83-1
    1. Berberine (Umbellatine) is a potent oral hypoglycemic agent with beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. 2. Berberine may as a broad-spectrum anti-microbial medicine, a complementary therapeutic agent for HIV/AIDS. 3. Berberine seems to act as an herbal antidepressant and a neuroprotector against neurodegenerative disorders. 4. Berberine is used in histology for staining heparin in mast cells. As a natural dye, berberine has a colour index of 7516. 5. Berberine reduces hepatic fat content in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; also prevents proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are central for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. 6. Berberine can ameliorate proinflammatory cytokines-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage in vitro, and berberine may be one of the targeted therapeutic agents that can restore barrier function in intestinal disease states. 7. Berberine has antineoplastic effects, including breast cancer, leukemia, melanoma, epidermoid carcinoma, hepatoma, pancreatic cancer, oral carcinoma, tongue carcinoma, glioblastoma, prostate carcinoma and gastric carcinoma, etc.
    • $50
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  • Quercetin
    T2174117-39-5
    Quercetin, a flavonoid natural product, is a SIRT1 activator. It is also a PI3K inhibitor, inhibiting PI3Kγ, PI3Kδ, and PI3Kβ with IC50 values of 2.4, 3.0, and 5.4 μM, respectively. Recognized as a heat shock protein inhibitor, Quercetin can significantly reduce exosome release in TII models by downregulating Hsp70 or Hsp90.
    • $42
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  • Ammonium sulfate
    T649887783-20-2
    Ammonium sulfate is one of the compounds commonly used in inorganic experiments as an oxidizing agent and bleaching agent.
    • $44
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  • Lipoic acid
    T222351200-22-2
    Lipoic acid (R-(+)-Thioctic acid) is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. It is made in animals normally, and is essential for aerobic metabolism.
    • $57
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  • Bufotalin
    T5A2461471-95-4
    1. Bufotalin (Bufotaline)e is a kind of poisonous secretions of toads.
    • $40
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  • Gallic acid
    T0877149-91-7
    Gallic acid (Benzoic acid) is found in almost all plants. Plants known for their high gallic acid content include gallnuts,grapes,tea,hops and oak bark.
    • $38
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  • Nisoldipine
    T016363675-72-9
    Nisoldipine (BAY-k 5552) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent.
    • $41
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  • 2-Methoxyestradiol
    T2220362-07-2
    2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) is an orally bioavailable estradiol metabolite with potential antineoplastic activity. 2-Methoxyestradiol inhibits angiogenesis by reducing endothelial cell proliferation and inducing endothelial cell apoptosis. This agent also inhibits tumor cell growth by binding to tubulin, resulting in antimitotic activity, and by inducing caspase activation, resulting in cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis.
    • $50
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  • Protopine
    T3429130-86-9
    Protopine (Fumarine) is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid. It has been found to inhibit histamine H1 receptors and platelet aggregation, and acts as an analgesic.
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  • L-Ascorbic acid
    T092850-81-7
    L-Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is a natural product that is a potent reducing agent and antioxidant. L-Ascorbic acid functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen. L-Ascorbic acid is used in the treatment of scurvy.
    • $42
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  • Octyl gallate
    T2S18651034-01-1
    1. Octyl Gallate is an antioxidant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a food additive. 2. Octyl Gallate has antimetastatic activity. 3. Octyl Gallate shows antimicrobial activity against H. pylori, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 125 ug/mL. 4. Combination therapy with octyl gallate and ferulic acid improves cognition and neurodegeneration in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.5. Octyl Gallate is a potential anticancer agent, it exhibited decreased MCF-7 & MDA-MB-231 survival and induced apoptosis, with IC50 value of 40 uM. 6. Octyl gallate (Octyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate) has antiviral activity, it shows an inhibitory effect on the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in HEp-2 or Vero cells. 7. Octyl gallate shows antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC7754 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii ATCC 60483.
    • $29
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  • Rhein
    T2997478-43-3
    Rhein (NSC 38629) is an anthraquinone compound extracted from Polygonaceae Rheum Officinale with anti-inflammation and antitumor activities.
    • $50
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  • Amentoflavone
    T34171617-53-4
    Amentoflavone (3',8''-Biapigenin), as a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, can interact with many other medications. CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 are proteins used for drug metabolism in the body. Amentoflavone also is an inhibitor of human cathepsin B. It has antimalarial activity in trials significant affinities towards the Delta-1, kappa opioid receptors (as an antagonist) and binds to benzodiazepine receptors. Amentoflavone may be a potential lead for a new type of anti-inflammatory agents having the dual inhibitory activity of group II phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase. Amentoflavone and quercetin differentially exerted suppression of PGE2 biosynthesis via downregulation of COX-2/iNOS expression.
    • $30
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  • Silibinin
    T166022888-70-6
    Silibinin (Silybin) is the major active constituent of silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, containing a mixture of flavonolignans consisting of silibinin, isosilibinin, silicristin, silidianin and others. Silibinin itself is a mixture of two diastereomers, silybin A and silybin B, in approximately equimolar ratio. Both in vitro and animal research suggest that silibinin has hepatoprotective (antihepatotoxic) properties that protect liver cells against toxins. Silibinin has also demonstrated in vitro anti-cancer effects against human prostate adenocarcinoma cells, estrogen-dependent and -independent human breast carcinoma cells, human ectocervical carcinoma cells, human colon cancer cells, and both small and nonsmall human lung carcinoma cells.
    • $50
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  • Lycopene
    T2864502-65-8
    Lycopene (ψ,ψ-Carotene) is a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, the major red pigment in fruits such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips, and guava. As a class, carotenoids are pigment compounds found in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae, and some types of fungus), and are chemically characterized by a large polyene chain containing 35-40 carbon atoms; some carotenoid polyene chains are terminated by two 6-carbon rings. In animals, carotenoids such as lycopene may possess antioxidant properties which may retard aging and many degenerative diseases. As an essential nutrient, lycopene is required in the animal diet.
    • $50
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  • Tempol
    T66992226-96-2
    Tempol (Tanol) is a superoxide scavenger. It has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and analgesic effects.
    • $29
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  • Berberine chloride
    T0461633-65-8
    Berberine chloride (Natural Yellow 18) is an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae and also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic to parenterally but has been used orally for various fungal and parasitic infections and an anti-diarrheal.
    • $29
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  • Flurochloridone
    T2054361213-25-0
    Flurochloridone (R 40244) is a selective herbicide. Flurochloridone induces apoptosis and is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses.
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  • NM-3
    T33701181427-78-1In house
    NM-3 is an orally available anti-angiogenic inhibitor with anti-tumour activity.NM-3 is used as a radiation modulator in vitro and in vivo.NM-3 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thereby inhibiting the proliferation of endothelial cells. This inhibits the proliferation of endothelial cells. NM-3 is associated with a mechanism of apoptosis induction by reactive oxygen species.
    • $190
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  • CT-2584
    T27094166981-13-1In house
    CT-2584 is an anticancer agent that inhibits phospholipid signaling and kills tumor cells through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates. CT-2584 reduces NKEF-B expression in several tumor cell types. CT-2584 reduced tumor growth in SCID mice by causing shunting of ab initio phospholipid biosynthesis from phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylinositol (PI) via PA.
    • $333 TargetMol
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  • OsMundacetone
    T572837079-84-8
    OsMundacetone (4-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one) is a natual product isolated from Rhizoma osmundae.
    • $44
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  • CP-312
    T27064895470-67-4
    CP-312 (Cardioprotectant 312) is an antioxidant defense response activator that protects hiPSC-CM viability by acting through induction of heme oxygenase-1 and targeting the antioxidant response network by inducing HMOX1 expression.CP-312 protects human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress.
    • $45
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  • PRLX-93936 HCL
    T36404L1094210-96-4In house
    PRLX-93936 HCL is an analog of erastin and demonstrated synergistic effects against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with cisplatin.
    • $195
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  • CPS-11
    T23911145945-21-7In house
    CPS-11 (N-(Hydroxymethyl)thalidomide) is a Thalidomide analogue that has significant antitumor activity and exhibits a wider range of activity and highly potent effects on the MM (multiple myeloma) cell line.
    • $397
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  • Antroquinonol
    T300871010081-09-0In house
    Antroquinonol is a ubiquinone derivative from Antrodia camphorata with anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities.Antroquinonol reduces oxidative stress and inhibits inflammation and sclerosis in mice with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis through enhancement of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.Antroquinonol has potential for use in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Antroquinonol has potential for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and may be used in colon cancer research.
    • $1,050
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  • BD-AcAc 2
    T104921208313-97-6In house
    BD-AcAc 2 (Ketone Ester) is a ketone monoester and can be used as a source of oral nutritional ketones. BD-AcAc 2 can elevate plasma levels of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, blood Na+, blood glucose levels and blood creatinine levels after oral administration in mice. BD-AcAc 2 can partly prevent muscle weakness in septic mice. BD-AcAc 2 exhibits potential to improve endurance and exercise performance in animal body. BD-AcAc 2 can also be used to research diabetes or Parkinson’s disease.
    • $63
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  • BNTA
    T40795685119-25-9
    BNTA is a potent extracellular matrix (ECM) modulator. In a rat model of arthritis, BNTA modulates arthritis by promoting the synthesis of cartilage structural molecules on chondrocytes through the induction of superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and regulating chondrogenesis through superoxide anion elimination.
    • $84 TargetMol
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  • Cichoric Acid
    TL00066537-80-0
    Cichoric Acid (Dicaffeoyltartaric acid) is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase and the replication in tissues. It also a class of cannabinomimetics with CB2 receptor-dependent and independent.
    • $35
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  • Sinapinic Acid
    T3753530-59-6
    Sinapinic Acid (Synapoic acid) protects the rat liver from CCl4-induced inflammation, most likely by acting as a free radical scavenger and modulator of NF-κB p65 activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Sinapic acid with antioxidant role protects cardiac cells and its functions from I/R induced oxidative stress. Sinapic acid is a potentially useful agent for the protection against liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Sinapic acid prevents the alterations in the levels of lipids and lipoproteins by virtue of its anti-lipidaemic effect in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Sinapic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia through PLC-PKC signals to enhance the glucose utilization in diabetic rats.
    • $29
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  • Dimethyl fumarate
    T0492624-49-7
    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a fumarate derivative, is used as antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent.
    • $45
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  • Trolox
    T171053188-07-1
    Trolox is a vitamin E analogue, used in reducing oxidative stress or damage.
    • $42
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  • Glabridin
    T340359870-68-7
    Glabridin (KB-289522) may serve as an anti-inflammatory agent in diabetes-related vascular dysfunction, through regulating the synthesis and activity of iNOS under high-glucose levels; may possess a therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders( such as diabetes and hyperglycemia), by modulating glucose metabolism through AMPK in skeletal muscle cells. Glabridin may have potential as a chemopreventive agent against liver Y metastasis, by inhibiting the invasion of human HCC cells.
    • $31
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