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ATM/ATR

ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks. It phosphorylates several key proteins that initiate activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, leading to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis. Several of these targets, including p53, CHK2, BRCA1, NBS1 and H2AX are tumor suppressors. ATR is a serine/threonine kinase and belongs to the phosphoinositide 3- kinase related protein kinases (PIKKs), particularly to ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) subfamily. It functions to maintain genome integrity by stabilizing replication forks and by regulating cell cycle progression and DNA repair.
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