NEDD8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD8 gene.(in saccharomyces cerevisiae this protein is known as Rub1) This ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein becomes covalently conjugated to a limited number of cellular proteins, in a process called NEDDylation similar to ubiquitination. Human NEDD8 shares 60% amino acid sequence identity to ubiquitin. The primary known substrates of NEDD8 modification are the cullin subunits of cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligases, which are active only when NEDDylated. Their NEDDylation is critical for the recruitment of E2 to the ligase complex, thus facilitating ubiquitin conjugation. NEDD8 modification has therefore been implicated in cell cycle progression and cytoskeletal regulation.