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Boraginaceae includes about 2,000 species of shrubs, trees, and herbs in 146, to 156 genera with a worldwide distribution. Arnebiae Radix is a traditional Persian, Unani, Ayurvedic, and Chinese medicine with pleiotropic properties that has been used for several 100 years. Shikonin, shikonofurans, and red naphthoquinones are the main effective chemical constituents, and they have been widely used for the treatment of infections, inflammation, and bleeding for their anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and anti-angiogenic activities. Shikonin and its derivatives exhibit anti-cancer and anti-tumorigenic activities and have the potential to be used for the development of anti-tumor drugs.

Ehretia Echium Heliotropium Tournefortia Arnebia Lithospermum