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Paeoniaceae consists of only the genus Paeonia with about 33 species. There are three traditional Chinese medicines in China, Mudanpi, Baishao, and Chishao, which are processed from the roots of Paeoniaceae plants. These three medicines have the functions of clearing heat, cooling blood, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. Paeoniflorin, a monoterpene bicyclic glycoside, is considered the most important medicinal ingredient. Modern medical studies have shown that paeoniflorin has immunoregulatory, antidepressant, anti-arthritis, antithrombosis, anti-tumor, hepatoprotective, cerebral ischemic injury protective, and neuroprotective effects.