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Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. Cellular ROS are generated endogenously during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion. ROS also activates MAPK pathways by the direct inhibition of MAPK phosphatases. Through PTEN, the PI3K pathway is subject to reversible redox regulation by ROS generated by growth factor stimulation. The activation of autophagy may be a cellular defense mechanism in response to ROS.
Signaling Pathways | Target | TargetMol
Cat. No. Product name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
TN6706 3-demethylcolchicine 7336-33-6 99.41%
3-demethylcolchicine
3-demethylcolchicine is a natural product isolated from Gloriosa superba.Inhibitory effect on the polymerization of purified bovine brain tubulin.
T6482 Efaproxiral Sodium 170787-99-2 99.41%
Efaproxiral Sodium
Efaproxiral Sodium (RSR13 sodium), a synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin, is utilized for brain metastases originating from breast cancer.
T7094 Levomefolic Acid 31690-09-2 99.4%
Levomefolic Acid
Levomefolic Acid (5-MTHF) is a natural, active form of folic acid used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homoc...
TN6735 Bigelovin 3668-14-2 99.4%
Bigelovin
Bigelovin is a selective retinoid X receptor α agonist. Bigelovin suppresses tumor growth through inducing apoptosis and autophagy via the inhibition of mTOR pat...
T5426 DMNQ 6956-96-3 99.4%
DMNQ
DMNQ is a 1,4-naphthoquinone that acts as a redox-cycling agent, typically increasing intracellular superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation.DMNQ increases ROS...
T2821 Ethyl ferulate 4046-02-0 99.39%
Ethyl ferulate
Ethyl ferulate (Ethyl 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxycinnamate) is the alkyl ester derivative of ferulic acid which is a naturally occurring plant product with anti-oxidat...
T3018 Protocatechualdehyde 139-85-5 99.34%
Protocatechualdehyde
Protocatechualdehyde (3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde), a natural polyphenol compound derived from radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae roots, exhibits diverse biological activ...
T2988 (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate 989-51-5 99.34%
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) is an antioxidant polyphenol flavonoid that inhibits telomerase and DNA methyltransferase. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG...
T3496 Buprofezin 69327-76-0 99.34%
Buprofezin
Buprofezin (Applaud) is an insecticide used for control of insect pests such as mealybugs, leafhoppers and whitefly on vegetable crops.
T3330 Trans-Trimethoxyresveratrol 22255-22-7 99.33%
trans-Trimethoxyresveratrol
trans-Trimethoxyresveratrol (MR-3), a natural methoxylated analog of resveratrol, inhibits breast Y cell invasiveness by downregulation of PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-cat...
T4749 Squalene 111-02-4 99.33%
Squalene
Squalene (AddaVax) is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though there are botanical sources a...
T6170 Elesclomol 488832-69-5 99.33%
Elesclomol
Elesclomol (STA-4783) is an oxidative stress inducer and a highly lipophilic copper ion carrier. Elesclomol induces apoptosis in tumor cells and is used in coppe...
T6S1917 Schisandrol B 58546-54-6 99.32%
Schisandrol B
1. Schisandrol B (Besigomsin) may exert neuroprotective effects by attenuating the microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response via inhibiting the TLR4-mediated...
T68953 Arecoline 63-75-2 99.28%
Arecoline
Arecoline is a natural alkaloid derived from areca nut in the palm family and is a potent nicotine and partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Are...
T13396 Zinc Protoporphyrin 15442-64-5 99.27%
Zinc Protoporphyrin
Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is an orally active and competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and markedly attenuates the protective ef...
T7461 2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine 56-06-4 99.26%
2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine
2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) (DAHP) is a selective, specific inhibitor of GTP cyclohydrolase I, the rate limiting step for de novo pterin synthesis
T3417 Amentoflavone 1617-53-4 99.22%
Amentoflavone
Amentoflavone (3',8''-Biapigenin), as a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, can interact with many other medications. CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 are proteins used for ...
T2090 Lexibulin 917111-44-5 99.22%
Lexibulin
Lexibulin (CYT-997)(CYT-997) is a potent tubulin polymerization inhibitor (IC50: 10-100 nM, in Y cell lines). Lexibulin blocks the formation of the mitotic spind...
TN5634 Aureusidin 38216-54-5 99.18%
Aureusidin
Aureusidin (Auresidin) shows antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity with anti-inflammatory effects.
T5852 Canthaxanthin 514-78-3 99.1%
Canthaxanthin
Canthaxanthin (E 161g) is a red-orange carotenoid that belongs to the xanthophyll group. This naturally occurring pigment is present in bacteria, algae and some ...
3-demethylcolchicine
TN6706
3-demethylcolchicine is a natural product isolated from Gloriosa superba.Inhibitory effect on the polymerization of purified bovine brain tubulin.
Efaproxiral Sodium
T6482
Efaproxiral Sodium (RSR13 sodium), a synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin, is utilized for brain metastases originating from breast cancer.
Levomefolic Acid
T7094
Levomefolic Acid (5-MTHF) is a natural, active form of folic acid used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homoc...
Bigelovin
TN6735
Bigelovin is a selective retinoid X receptor α agonist. Bigelovin suppresses tumor growth through inducing apoptosis and autophagy via the inhibition of mTOR pat...
DMNQ
T5426
DMNQ is a 1,4-naphthoquinone that acts as a redox-cycling agent, typically increasing intracellular superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation.DMNQ increases ROS...
Ethyl ferulate
T2821
Ethyl ferulate (Ethyl 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxycinnamate) is the alkyl ester derivative of ferulic acid which is a naturally occurring plant product with anti-oxidat...
Protocatechualdehyde
T3018
Protocatechualdehyde (3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde), a natural polyphenol compound derived from radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae roots, exhibits diverse biological activ...
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate
T2988
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) is an antioxidant polyphenol flavonoid that inhibits telomerase and DNA methyltransferase. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG...
Buprofezin
T3496
Buprofezin (Applaud) is an insecticide used for control of insect pests such as mealybugs, leafhoppers and whitefly on vegetable crops.
trans-Trimethoxyresveratrol
T3330
trans-Trimethoxyresveratrol (MR-3), a natural methoxylated analog of resveratrol, inhibits breast Y cell invasiveness by downregulation of PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-cat...
Squalene
T4749
Squalene (AddaVax) is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though there are botanical sources a...
Elesclomol
T6170
Elesclomol (STA-4783) is an oxidative stress inducer and a highly lipophilic copper ion carrier. Elesclomol induces apoptosis in tumor cells and is used in coppe...
Schisandrol B
T6S1917
1. Schisandrol B (Besigomsin) may exert neuroprotective effects by attenuating the microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response via inhibiting the TLR4-mediated...
Arecoline
T68953
Arecoline is a natural alkaloid derived from areca nut in the palm family and is a potent nicotine and partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Are...
Zinc Protoporphyrin
T13396
Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is an orally active and competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and markedly attenuates the protective ef...
2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine
T7461
2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) (DAHP) is a selective, specific inhibitor of GTP cyclohydrolase I, the rate limiting step for de novo pterin synthesis
Amentoflavone
T3417
Amentoflavone (3',8''-Biapigenin), as a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, can interact with many other medications. CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 are proteins used for ...
Lexibulin
T2090
Lexibulin (CYT-997)(CYT-997) is a potent tubulin polymerization inhibitor (IC50: 10-100 nM, in Y cell lines). Lexibulin blocks the formation of the mitotic spind...
Aureusidin
TN5634
Aureusidin (Auresidin) shows antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity with anti-inflammatory effects.
Canthaxanthin
T5852
Canthaxanthin (E 161g) is a red-orange carotenoid that belongs to the xanthophyll group. This naturally occurring pigment is present in bacteria, algae and some ...
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TargetMol