Neuroscience AChR Forskolin


Catalog No. T2939   CAS 66575-29-9
Synonyms: Colforsin, Coleonol

Forskolin, a potent activator of the adenylate cyclase (EC50: 0.5 μM), can increase the cAMP level. It is extracted from the plant Coleus forskohlii.

Forskolin, CAS 66575-29-9
Pack Size Availability Price/USD Quantity
5 mg In stock 38.00
10 mg In stock 50.00
25 mg In stock 80.00
50 mg In stock 110.00
100 mg In stock 144.00
200 mg In stock 184.00
1 mL * 10 mM (in DMSO) In stock 51.00
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Biological Description
Chemical Properties
Storage & Solubility Information
Description Forskolin, a potent activator of the adenylate cyclase (EC50: 0.5 μM), can increase the cAMP level. It is extracted from the plant Coleus forskohlii.
Targets&IC50 Adenylyl cyclase (AC),   Adenylyl cyclase : ic50 0.5 μM (cell free),  
Kinase Assay For Jak3 kinase assays, Fsk-treated MT-2 cells were lysed, clarified, and immunoprecipitated using Jak3 antibody as described above. Kinase reactions were carried out as described previously at 30 °C for 20 min. For PKA kinase assays, untreated MT-2 cells were lysed, and Jak3 was immunoprecipitated and bound to PAS beads as described previously. Immunoprecipitated Jak3 was washed with kinase buffer (50 mM Hepes-NaOH (pH 7.4), 10 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM DTT, 20 μg/ml aprotinin, 10 μg/ml leupeptin, 1 μg/ml pepstatin A) and incubated with 200 μM ATP and purified protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKAc) as indicated in the figure legends. Kinase reactions were carried out at 32 °C for 30 min followed by vigorous washing of the beads with cold kinase wash buffer as described previously. For [γ-32P]ATP radiolabeled kinase assays using recombinant Jak3, Hek293 cells were transfected with wild type (WT) Jak3 or kinase-dead Jak3 K855A using Lipofectamine 2000 according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells were lysed and immunoprecipitated with Jak3 antibody. Jak3-bound PAS beads were washed three times in cold lysis buffer followed by kinase buffer. Kinase reactions were initiated by adding 10 μCi [γ-32P]ATP, 10 μm unlabeled ATP, and 1 μg of purified PKAc to Jak3-bound PAS bead reaction mixtures. Kinase reactions were performed at 32 °C for 30 min. Jak3-bound PAS beads were washed three times in radioimmunoassay buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 75 mM NaCl, 20 mM EDTA, 10 mM EGTA, 20 mM Na4P2O7, 50 mM NaF, 20 mM 2-glycerolphosphate, 1 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate, 0.1% Triton X-100) and one time in kinase wash buffer. The reactions were stopped by adding 2× SDS-PAGE sample buffer followed by SDS-PAGE. Coomassie stainable Jak3 bands were excised from the PVDF membrane and subjected to phosphoamino acid analysis [2].
Cell Research
Kit 225 or MT-2 cells were treated with 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μM Forskolin for 20 min at 37 °C. Cells were lysed and clarified by centrifugation, and the concentration of cAMP was detected by direct cAMP ELISA. Optical density was measured at 405 nm, and the concentration of intracellular cAMP was calculated using a weighted four parameter logistic curve according to the manufactures instructions [2].
Animal Research
Forskolin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and injected intraperitoneally into neonatal mice at postnatal days 4 (P4) and 5 (P5). Mice injected with DMSO served as the controls. The treated mice were euthanized at P6, and their retinas were isolated for whole-mount immunohistochemistry (IHC). We first tested the effect of different concentrations of forskolin on the survival rate and retinal vasculature and determined the optimal concentration, 1.0 μg/50 μL (0.3 mg/kg) at P4 and 1.5 μg/50 μL (0.5 mg/kg) at P5, used to compare the retinal vascular phenotypes between WT mice and Mrp4-deficient mice [4]. After acclimatization for 2 weeks, animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight rats each and treated for six consecutive weeks as follows: The first group was treated with CCl4 (50% CCl4/corn oil; 0.5 mL·kg?1, i.p.) twice a week to induce liver fibrosis. The second group was given forskolin only at a dose of 10 mg·kg?1, i.p., dissolved in a DMSO/saline solution (1:49) five times a week. The third group was given both CCl4 and forskolin. The dose of forskolin used here was based on the results of our preliminary study. The fourth group served as the normal control, receiving vehicles only. At 24 h after the last injection, blood samples were collected from the retro‐orbital plexus after light anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg·kg?1, i.p.). Serum was separated by centrifugation at 3000× g for 10 min and was used for the assessment of liver functions. Rats were killed by cervical dislocation, and livers were removed and weighed. A portion of liver tissue was washed and homogenized to obtain a 20% (w·v?1) homogenate, which was used for assessment of oxidative stress, inflammatory and fibrogenic markers. Another portion was placed in formalin for immunohistochemical and histopathological analyses. The remainder was stored at ?80°C, together with the 20% homogenate, until needed [5].
Animal Model: Mice
Synonyms Colforsin , Coleonol
Purity 99.86%
Molecular Weight 410.51
Formula C22H34O7
CAS No. 66575-29-9


0-4℃ for short term (days to weeks), or -20℃ for long term (months).

Solubility Information

DMSO: 30 mg/mL (73 mM)

Ethanol: 15 mg/mL (36.5 mM)

Water: Insoluble

( < 1 mg/ml refers to the product slightly soluble or insoluble )


References and Literature
1. Robbins JD, et al. Forskolin carbamates: binding and activation studies with type I adenylyl cyclase. J Med Chem. 1996 Jul 5;39(14):2745-52. 2. Rodriguez G, et al. Forskolin-inducible cAMP pathway negatively regulates T-cell proliferation by uncoupling the interleukin-2 receptor complex. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 8;288(10):7137-46. 3. Hou P, et al. Pluripotent stem cells induced from mouse somatic cells by small-molecule compounds. Science. 2013 Aug 9;341(6146):651-4. 4. Matsumiya W, et al. Forskolin modifies retinal vascular development in Mrp4-knockout mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Dec 7;53(13):8029-35. 5. El-Agroudy NN, et al. Forskolin, a hedgehog signalling inhibitor, attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2016 Nov;173(22):3248-3260. 6. Lu J, Dou F, Yu Z. The potassium channel KCa3. 1 represents a valid pharmacological target for microgliosis-induced neuronal impairment in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease[J]. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2019, 16(1): 1-14. 7. Lin J Y, Cheng J, Du Y Q, et al. In vitro expansion of pancreatic islet clusters facilitated by hormones and chemicals[J]. Cell Discovery. 2020, 6(1): 1-12. 8. Lin J Y, Cheng J, Du Y Q, et al. In vitro pancreatic islet cluster expansion facilitated by hormones and chemicals[J]. Cell Discovery. 2020, 6(1): 1-12. 9. Wu L, Dong A, Dong L, et al. PARIS, an optogenetic method for functionally mapping gap junctions[J]. eLife. 2019 Jan 14;8. pii: e43366. 10. Xiaoli F, Yaqing Z, Ruhui L, et al. Graphene oxide disrupted mitochondrial homeostasis through inducing intracellular redox deviation and autophagy-lysosomal network dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021: 126158.

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